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Did God Allow Noah To Eat Meat?

The passage of Genesis 9:2-4 was the subject of great debate and controversy. After years of study and research and virtually leaving no stone unturned on the subject, to date I have not read a commentary on the passage which is worthy of a serious consideration. Generally it is argued that here we have the first biblical passage where God explicitly told Noah that he may kill any animal he wanted to in order to eat its flesh. Even vegetarians who abhor meat eating and who practice vegetarianism on ethical grounds admit that here we are faced with a biblical text which clearly sanctions the killing of animals and eating of their flesh. All they can say is that due to the fallen and corrupt nature of humanity God gave a “concession” concerning meat diet but it was not His ideal as in Genesis 1:30 where God ideally prescribed a completely vegetarian diet. But nothing can be further from the truth.

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Did Jesus Eat Fish?

 There is only one passage in the whole of the New Testament where it is explicitly and specifically said that Jesus actually ate meat. If this text is true and genuine and in fact inspired by the Holy Spirit, then it would follow that Jesus was not and could not have been a vegetarian. But if on the other hand it can be satisfactorily demonstrated that this passage in Luke 24 is actually a forgery, then it follows that Jesus must have been a vegetarian, since a lying hand felt a need to insert a lying passage in order to portray Jesus as a carnivorous being.

Where Are The Dead? Part 1 PDF Print E-mail
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Saturday, 13 July 2013 00:06


[In Part 1, I present an argument based on the Bible that there are disembodied spirits and consciousness beyond the grave. In Part 2, I present an argument based on the Bible that there are no disembodied spirits and that there is no consciousness beyond the grave and unless there is a resurrection then all the dead would forever sleep in total oblivion. Which argument is right? After careful reading, you decide.]




One of the greatest magicians - Harry Houdini - died in Detroit, Michigan, telling his wife that he will make every effort to contact her from “the other world”. Since October 31, 1926 - the day Houdini died - most prominent mediums of the United States have attempted to establish a contact with Houdini without however any success. Just where is Houdini? Where are all those who died in the past? Are there “disembodied spirits” or “ghosts” and is it at all possible to communicate with them? Is there any consciousness and activity among the dead?  Seventh Day Adventists believe in the “soul sleep” doctrine. In their magazine Signs of the Times art. Near Death Experiences on p. 43 we read: 


“Near Death Experiences are not examples of the soul breaking free of the body, because according to SCRIPTURE, the soul cannot exist apart from a body”. 


The Watchtower of the Jehovah’s Witnesses in its book The Truth that leads to Eternal Life on p. 40 states: 


“The Bible warns that those who claim to speak with the dead are really getting in touch with demons, wicked spirits that FALSELY pretend to be the one who had died”.


To justify this claim the Watchtower refers to Deuteronomy 18:10-12. The King James Bible somewhat misleads the reader and does not convey the exact meaning of the Hebrew text. Please note the text as it stands in the King James Bible: 


“There shall not be found among you any one that maketh his son or his daughter to pass through the fire, or that useth divination, or an observer of times, or an enchanter, or a witch, Or a charmer, or a consulter with familiar spirits, or a wizard, or a necromancer”. For all that do these things are an abomination unto the LORD: and because of these abominations the LORD thy God doth drive them out from before thee”. 


The Hebrew text says nothing of inquiring of the FAMILIAR SPIRITS. The Hebrew text uses the Hebrew word owb which is number #178 in Strong’s Hebrew Dictionary and means: necromancer. The word necromancer comes from the word necromancy which means: communication with the dead. The word is derived from two Greek words: nekros [corpse] and manteia [divining, communicating, prophecy]. The text of Deuteronomy says nothing whatsoever of consulting the demons and especially of demons pretending to be someone who died. The Watchtower therefore resorts to dishonesty and alleges the text says what it actually does not. We have a text in the Bible which tells of King Saul visiting a medium in order to establish contact with Samuel who was dead. The Watchtower and all those who believe in what they call a “soul sleep” insist that it was not the disembodied spirit or ghost of Samuel that appeared to Saul but rather a demon who pretended to be Samuel. We must therefore analyse this text very carefully for within we shall find whether the dead continue to exist in a disembodied form or whether they are in total oblivion who cannot be contacted by any means. Please note the text as is translated in The Bible for Today: 


“Samuel had died some time earlier, and people from all over Israel had attended his funeral in his home of Ramah. Meanwhile, Saul had been trying to get rid of everyone who spoke with the spirits of the dead...The Philistines went to Shunem and set up a camp. Saul called the army of Israel together, and they set up their camp in Gilboa. Saul took one look at the Philistine army and started shaking with fear. So he asked the LORD what to do. But the LORD would not answer, either in a dream or by a priest or prophet. Then Saul told his officers, Find me a woman who can talk to the spirits of the dead. I’ll go to her and find out what’s going to happen. His servants told him, There’s a woman at Endor who can talk to spirits of the dead. That night, Saul put on different clothing so nobody would recognise him. Then he and two of his men went to the woman, and asked, will you bring up the ghost of someone for us? The woman said, Why are you trying to trick me and get me killed? You know King Saul has gotten rid of everyone who talks to the spirits of the dead! Saul replied, I swear by the living LORD that nothing will happen to you because of this. Who do you want me to bring up? she asked. Bring up the ghost of Samuel, he answered. When the woman saw Samuel, she screamed. Then she turned to Saul and said, You’ve tricked me! You’re the king! Don’t be afraid, Saul replied, Just tell me what you see. She answered, I see a spirit rising up out of the ground. What does it look like? It looks like an old man wearing a robe. Saul knew it was Samuel SO HE BOWED DOWN LOW. Why are you bothering me by bringing me up like this? Samuel asked. I’m terribly worried, Saul answered. The Philistines are about to attack me. God has turned his back on me and won’t answer any more by prophets or by dreams. What should I do? Samuel said...Tomorrow the LORD will let the Philistines defeat Israel’s army, then you and your sons will join me down here in the world of the dead” [1 Samuel 28]. 


It is of extreme significance to observe the manner in which the text was written. There is not even a slightest hint that demon falsely represented Samuel. On the contrary, the author continually refers to the being conversing with Saul as SAMUEL. I want you to be aware of one fact. If a Jehovah’s Witness or an Adventist or Christadelphian or anyone else who believes in the “soul sleep” concept would write in order to describe this scenario we find in 1 Samuel 28, they would never describe it in a manner that we find it in the Bible. They would most certainly point out that the being was not Samuel but rather a demon impersonifying him.  


The biblical text tells us most plainly that after Samuel died Saul got rid of all mediums and those who practiced necromancy. The King James Bible states that he got rid of those who had a FAMILIAR SPIRIT. I have already pointed out earlier that this phrase comes from the Hebrew word  owb which means necromancy. Saul rid Israel of those who could communicate with the spirits of the dead. If Saul believed that the dead could not be consulted in anyway but that rather mediums consulted the DEMONS and not the DISEMBODIED SPIRITS he would not have made an attempt to consult Samuel. Neither would he ask her if she is willing to bring up the GHOST of him whom they name. If he believed that Samuel could not be consulted he would not have named him as the one he wanted to speak with. Saul was very much aware of the state of the dead. He was also very much aware of the Deuteronomy law which forbade the communication with the dead. For that very reason he put away all mediums and necromancers in the land. This positively proves that Saul knew all along that this woman could establish contact with real Samuel and not a demonic world. Another way to ascertain this is the fact that Saul bowed down to the ground before Samuel. If this was a demon falsely representing Samuel, Saul would have never bowed down before a demon. Another significant thing we find in this text. Samuel told Saul that the Israelite army would be defeated and that the next day he and his sons will join Samuel in the world of the dead. Now we have already seen that Adventists [and all others  holding the same view] believe that soul could not exist without a body. In other words, they reject that there could be a disembodied spirit or ghost. Samuel however told Saul that he and his sons would join him in Sheol. The Bible tells us that the next day Saul and his sons were KILLED. The Philistines cut Saul’s head and took it to the Temple of Astaroth. They nailed the body of Saul to the wall of Beth-shan. The inhabitants of Jabesh-Gilead went overnight and took the body of Saul and his sons and burnt them. The bones [substance] they buried [1 Samuel 31].  


Those who believe in a “soul sleep” believe that a person could not exist without a body. Samuel however stated plainly that Saul and his sons would join him in Sheol the next day. Now Saul and his sons did not even retain their physical bodies. Their bodies were burned. They however joined Samuel in the world of the dead as disembodied spirits. That the dead retain some sort of consciousness and that they are aware of what is going on in the world is also apparent from the statement of Jacob. When he thought that Joseph was killed by a wild beast he cried bitterly. His sons and daughters tried to calm him and comfort him. Please note: 


“And Jacob rent his clothes, and put sackcloth upon his loins, and mourned for his son many days. And all his sons and all his daughters rose up to comfort him; but he refused to be comforted; and he said, For I will go down into the grave UNTO MY SON mourning. Thus his father wept for him” [Genesis 37:35]. 


The word grave has been translated from the Hebrew word Sheol. Sheol was the place where disembodied spirits lived. David also believed that at death he was going to go to his son in Sheol [2 Samuel 12:23]. Now those who believe in a “soul sleep” concept insist that Sheol merely represents GRAVE or TOMB. This however could not be the case. Grave in ancient Israel was ABOVE THE GROUND - usually in a rock or cave. Abraham buried his own dead in a cave. Lazarus was buried in a cave. Jesus himself was buried in a rock hewn tomb. Sheol however was deep in the ground and was known as the nether world. In Numbers 16:30-33 we are told that the Earth opened its mouth and Korah, Dathan and Abiram were swallowed and went alive to SHEOL. The text shows that SHEOL was INSIDE THE EARTH. In Amos 9:2 we read: 


“Though they dig into Sheol, from there shall my hand take them; though they climb up to heaven, from there will I bring them down”. 


In Psalm 139:8 we read: 


“If I ascend to heaven, You are there! If I make my bed in Sheol, You are there”. 


Do you see the contrast? Sheol is BENEATH the Earth. Heaven is above. One who wants to escape runs away as far as possible. Sheol therefore must be very deep in the Earth. Sheol is also divided into two regions. In Deuteronomy 32:22 we find the following statement: 


“For a fire has been kindled in My anger, and it burns to the lowest Sheol”. 


The word lowest comes from the Hebrew word tachtiy, number #8482 in Strong’s and means: lowermost. The Hebrew Sheol is equivalent to Greek Hades. Hades in Greek thought was a subterranean region where the disembodied spirits lived. The word is derived from the name of the Greek god HADES who was  ruler of the underworld. The lowest Sheol is equivalent to Greek  Tartarus. In Isaiah 14 we find a text in which the King of Babylon is described. In this text the ruler of Babylon is condemned for his atrocities and pride. Please note the text as is translated in several Bible versions: 


“...they are to mock the king of Babylon and say: The cruel king has fallen! He will never oppress anyone again! The LORD has ended the power of the evil rulers who angrily oppressed the peoples and never stopped persecuting the nations they conquered. Now at last the whole world enjoys rest and peace, and everyone sings for joy. The cypress trees and the cedars of Lebanon rejoice over the fallen king, because there is no one to cut them down, now that he is gone! The world of the dead is getting ready to welcome the king of Babylon. The GHOSTS of those who were powerful on earth are STIRRING about...You used to be honoured with the music of harps, but now here you are in the world of the dead...You said you would climb to the tops of the clouds and be like the Almighty. But instead, you have been brought down to the deepest part of the world of the dead” [Isaiah 14:4-9,11,14-15 Good News Bible]. 


“...On your account Sheol beneath us is astir to greet your arrival. To honour you he ROUSES THE GHOSTS...What! Now you have fallen to Sheol to the very bottom of the abyss” [Jerusalem Bible].



 “Sheol [Hades, the place of the dead] below is stirred up to meet you at your coming [O tyrant Babylonian rulers]; it stirs up the SHADES of the dead to greet you...Yet you shall be brought down to Sheol [Hades], to the innermost recesses of the pit [the region of the dead] {The Amplified Bible}. 


This text clearly reveals that spirits, ghosts or shades of the dead in SHEOL or HADES will be STIRRED, AROUSED or DISTURBED to meet and taunt the King of Babylon in the world of the dead. The text also depicts that there are different levels at Sheol. The bottom of the pit…innermost recesses of the pit…lowest Sheol…No Adventist, Jehovah’s Witness or Christadelphian would ever use this figure of speech because they simply reject any notion that there is such a thing as SHEOL deep in the Earth. They maintain that SHEOL simply means GRAVE or TOMB which is no more than 2-3 meters deep and often is actually above the ground.  Neither would they ever use the word spirit-ghost or actually admit that they could be stirred up or disturbed in SHEOL because they simply do not believe that there could be disembodied spirits, ghosts or shades. The Hebrew word translated ghosts, spirits or shades is rapha - used in plural only and really means: departed spirits. The word shade means: disembodied spirit, ghost. The prophets were not alone in their belief in disembodied spirits and ghosts but Jesus and his disciples did likewise. The following texts are simply ignored and not quoted by those who believe in a “soul sleep”. Please note: 


“About three o’clock in the morning Jesus came to them [disciples], walking on the water. When the disciples saw him, they screamed in terror, thinking he was a GHOST” [Matthew 14:25-27]. 


“About three o’clock in the morning he came to them, walking on the water. He started to go past them, but when they saw him walking on the water, they screamed in terror, thinking he was a GHOST” [Mark 6:48-50]. 


These texts demonstrate that the disciples believed that physical body contained a spirit which could exist and be manifested apart from the body. The word translated ghost comes from the Greek word phantasma which means: phantom, specter, apparition, ghost, spirit. The word apparition means: ghost, specter, phantom. The word specter means: visible spirit of a dead person, ghost. The word phantom means: something apparent to the sight or other sense, but having no material substance or physical reality; ghost, apparition. Those who believe in a “soul sleep” claim that the disciples were misled by the popular Jewish thinking of that time. But was Jesus also misled? Apparently he himself believed in disembodied spirits and ghosts. This fact is apparent from the following text: 


“...He [Jesus] said, Peace be with you. But the whole group was terribly frightened, thinking they were seeing a GHOST! Why are you frightened? he asked. Why do you doubt who I am? Look at my hands. Look at my feet. You can see that it’s really me. Touch me and make sure that I am not a GHOST, because GHOSTS don’t have bodies, as you see that I do” [Luke 24:36-39]. 


Jesus argued that he could not be a GHOST since he had FLESH AND BONES - that is, PHYSICAL BODY. The GHOSTS, he said, do not have the same. By saying this Jesus clearly confirmed the fact that there are disembodied spirits who could exist apart from the body. Adventists then and all those who argue that “soul” could not exist apart from the body are simply mistaken. Paul himself believed that human spirit could exist and function out of the body. Please note the following text: 


“I know a man in Christ who fourteen years ago was caught up to the third heaven. In the body or out of the body? That I do not know: God knows. I simply know that in the body or out of the body [God knows which]...” [2 Corinthians 12:2-3 Moffat Translation]. 


“I know a man in union with the Messiah who fourteen years ago was snatched up to the third heaven; whether he was in the body or outside of the body I don’t know, God knows. And I know that such a man - whether in the body or apart from the body...” [Jewish New Testament]. 


“I was caught up into the third heaven fourteen years ago. Whether my body was there or just my spirit, I don’t know; only God knows” [The Living Bible]. 


This text irrefutably proves that existence apart or outside of the body is possible. Essenes, Pharisees and other Jewish sects believed and taught that the human spirit or ghost retained conscious existence beyond the death of a physical body. The Sadducees however rejected the idea that ghosts or human spirits continued their existence in Sheol. They also rejected the doctrine of resurrection and angeology. The Pharisees on the other hand accepted all three. Please note: 


“But knowing that one part of the Sanherdrin consisted of Sadducees and the other of Pharisees, Paul shouted, Brothers, I myself am a Pharisee and the son of a Pharisee; and it is concerning the hope of the resurrection of the dead that I am being tried! When he said this, an argument arose between the Pharisees and the Sadducees, and the crowd was divided. For the Sadducees deny the resurrection and the existence of angels and GHOSTS; whereas the Pharisees acknowledge both. So there was a great uproar, with some of the Torah-teachers who were on the side of the Pharisees standing up and joining in - We don’t find anything wrong with this man; what if some GHOST or an ANGEL spoke with him?” [Acts 23:6-9]. 


It is very apparent from this text that the Pharisees, [just like Essenes and later the Ebionites] believed in afterlife while the Sadducees denied it. Jesus apparently disagreed with the view of the Sadducees. He insisted that Abraham, Isaac and Jacob were actually alive. Please note the text: 


“But concerning the resurrection of the dead, have you not read what was told you by El, saying, I am the El of Abraham, the El of Isaac, the El of Jacob? But El is not the El of the DEAD, but of the LIVING” [Matthew 22:31-32]. 


The Ebionites also used this text to support their belief in afterlife. Apostle Peter in Clementine Homilies repeatedly states that the soul of man is immortal. Abraham, Isaac and Jacob must have been alive in Sheol in a disembodied form - as is also the case of other persons. In support of this statement we find many references in the Bible which corroborate it. Please note Genesis 15:15 where God actually said to Abraham the following: 


“And you shall depart from this life and go to your fathers in peace; and you shall be buried at the right old age”. 


God plainly states that Abraham’s fathers [that is, ancestors] must have been alive in Sheol since Abraham was to join them after his death. The text of Genesis 15:15 is so translated even by the Watchtower and The House of Yahweh even though they do not believe in disembodied existence. Please note: 


“As for you, you will go to your forefathers in peace; You will be buried at a good old age” [New World Translation of the Holy Scriptures]. 


“Now as for you, you shall go to your fathers in peace; and you will be buried in a full old age” [The House of Yahweh Translation]. 


Now both, Jehovah’s Witnesses and the adherents of the House of Yahweh deny that there is any existence in Sheol. They therefore insist that the phrase “go to your fathers” and “be gathered to your people”  must imply the burial with relatives and ancestors in a family tomb. This however is a false assertion. Abraham was buried in a cave of Machpelah [according to a Jewish tradition. In Shechem, according to the Samaritans and Stephen] in which none of his relatives or forefathers were buried. His relatives and ancestors were buried in Messopotamia while he was buried in Canaan. God then could not have meant that Abraham will join his fathers in the family tomb [since he was never buried in the same place] but rather He meant that Abraham was going to join his fathers in Sheol - just as Samuel said to Saul that he and his sons would join Samuel in Sheol the next day.  


Moses died on Mount Nebo and was buried by God in the valley in the land of Moab in front of Beth-peor [Deuteronomy 34:6]. None of his fathers were buried there. God however told Moses that he will rest with his fathers [Deuteronomy 31:16]. David was buried in Jerusalem. None of his ancestors were buried there. It is said however that he was resting with his fathers [1 Kings 2:10]. It is apparent therefore that the terms “join your fathers” or “be gathered to your people” cannot possibly denote the common family grave but rather the reunion of the disembodied spirits in Sheol - the world of the dead. In Job 26:5-6 we find this significant passage: 


“The departed spirits are made to writhe from beneath the waters, and their inhabitants. Sheol is naked before Him, and the Pit has no covering” [The Interlinear Bible, Hebrew-English by J.P. Green]. 


“The shades of the dead tremble underneath the waters and their inhabitants. Sheol [the place of the dead] is naked before God, and Abaddon [the place of destruction] has no covering [from His eyes] {The Amplified Bible}. 


“The Shades tremble beneath the earth; the waters and their denizens are afraid. Before his eyes, Sheol is bare, Perdition itself is uncovered” [The Jerusalem Bible]. 


“The dead tremble in their place beneath the waters. The underworld is naked in God’s presence. There is no cover for the place of destruction” [The Living Bible”. 


“The spirits of the dead tremble in the waters under the earth. The world of the dead lies open to God; no covering shields it from his sight” [Good News Bible]. 


Zondervan NIV Bible Commentary, Vol. 1. in regards to this text as it stands in KJV states: 


“The term translated “the dead” means shades or spirits of the dead”. Here they tremble as God casts his eye on them in Sheol”.The New Jerome Biblical Commentary states: 


“The “shades” are the inhabitants of sheol, which is below the watery deeps, and they tremble before God”. 


Commentary on the Whole Bible by Jamieson, Faussest and Brown states: 


“The souls of the dead tremble under the waters, and their inhabitants...The inhabitants of the places under the waters are those in Gehenna, the lower of the two parts into which Sheol, according to the Jews, is divided”. 


In Psalm 18:4-5 we find allusion to watery waves in Sheol. In Psalm 24:2 we are told that there is deep water beneath the Earth. In Job 10:21,22 we find that Sheol is a land of 


 “gloom and deep darkness, the land of gloom and abyss, where light is as darkness”.  


This could hardly refer to a small cave-grave above the ground or a simply pit or grave in the ground. In Psalm 88:5-6 we read of “Sheol” and “the lowest pit, in the darkest depths”. This “lowest Pit” of “blackest darkness” is referred to in 2 Peter 2 and Jude. In Greek it is called TARTARUS. This is the place where the fallen angels called Watchers are imprisoned.



Please note the following texts: 


“God did not spare the angels who sinned, but threw them into TARTARUS, where they are kept chained in dark pits waiting for the Day of Judgement” [2 Peter 2:4]. 


“Remember the angels who did not stay within the limits of their proper authority, but abandoned their own dwelling place: they are bound with eternal chains in the DARKNESS BELOW, where God is keeping them for that great Day on which they will be condemned” [Jude 6]. 


The angels who are kept in TARTARUS or the LOWEST PIT OF SHEOL are not beings we now call EVIL SPIRITS or DEMONS. Demons are free to roam the Earth and deceive and torment mankind. That evil spirits commonly referred to as demons are not kept in TARTARUS nor are they in actual CHAINS as the Watchers are, is very apparent in the New Testament.  In Luke 8 we read of a man who was possessed by a legion of demons. When Jesus was going to cast them out from the man they begged him not to send them to ABYSS. The King James Bible uses the word DEEP. The Greek word that appears in Luke 8:31 is ABYSSOS and is number #12 in Strong’s Greek Dictionary where it is defined as follows: 


“depthless, infernal abyss”. 


The word infernal is thus defined by Funk and Wagnalls Standard Desk Dictionary: 


“Of or pertaining to the mythological world of the dead, or to hell”. 


The word is derived from Latin infernus which means situated below. The word abyss is defined by the same dictionary in the following manner: 


“A bottomless gulf; chasm. Any profound depth or void”. 


In the Greek Septuagint  the Greek word abyssos appears in Psalm 70:21 and was translated into English by Sir. Lancelot Brenton as depths of the earth. In Romans 10:6-7 abyss is contrasted with heaven. It plainly refers to the underworld - from which Jesus came out alive. Revelation 9:1-2 shows that abyss is actually locked. It also shows that great smoke ascended from the abyss and then locusts ascended up. Verse 11 clearly reveals that a special angel is in charge of the abyss. His name in Hebrew is ABBADON while in Greek APOLLYON. Both words mean DESTROYER. It is almost certain that this personality is the same as the Old Testament angel of death also called destroyer. Revelation 11:7 and 17:8 also reveal that the BEAST itself ascends out of the abyss. Revelation 20:1,3 clearly reveal that an angel had the key of the abyss and also great chains. He took hold of Satan and put him in chains. Then he locked him up in the abyss for a THOUSAND YEARS. This could never refer to a mere grave nor to a desolate earth - as Adventists maintain. The Watchers who sinned were imprisoned in abyss. The evil spirits - commonly referred to as DEMONS are in fact the disembodied spirits of the children who were born of human mothers and angelic fathers. They knew that their fathers were imprisoned in the abyss and that their own bodies perished in the Deluge.


For this very reason they were petrified at the idea of ending up in the abyss - the horrible place where their own fathers are locked away in chains. The fact that demons begged Jesus not to send them to the abyss proves beyond dispute that abyss is not and cannot be a mere grave or any desolate place. For the man who was possessed by the legion already lived in tombs. That means that the demons who were in him themselves lived there. Jesus also pointed out that when demons depart from a person they roam through DESOLATE PLACES. Since demons were petrified of the abyss it follows that it is indeed the lowest pit of Sheol. In the New Testament it is very apparent that demons loved to take possession of a human body. If they are deprived of that opportunity then they prefer any type of body - rather than desolate places. For this very reason they begged Jesus to allow them to enter the bodies of pigs. From the very fact that demons are able to take possession of a body it is apparent that they are indeed disembodied spirits. And since they alone in the whole universe are bodiless - since they lost their bodies during the Flood, for this very reason they take hold of human beings and then cause them to do all sort of perverse things so that they can indulge in lust by utilising the bodies of their victims.   


Jesus told his disciples not to fear those who can only kill the body but to fear God who can kill the body and cast the SOUL in GEHENNA. No propagator of a soul sleep would ever use such a terminology. If Jesus believed that the spirit of dead person could not exist beyond the grave, then he would not have spoken as he did lest he be misunderstood. No soul sleep preacher would ever speak like this.



























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